MAX2038 Datasheet PDF - Maxim Integrated Products

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MAX2038
Maxim Integrated Products

Part Number MAX2038
Description Ultrasound VGA Integrated
Page 23 Pages


MAX2038 datasheet pdf
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19-4375; Rev 0; 1/09
EVAALVUAAILTAIOBNLEKIT
www.DataSheet4U.com
Ultrasound VGA Integrated
with CW Octal Mixer
General Description
The MAX2038 8-channel variable-gain amplifier (VGA)
and programmable octal mixer array is designed for
high linearity, high dynamic range, and low noise per-
formance targeting ultrasound imaging and Doppler
applications. Each amplifier features differential inputs
and outputs and a total gain range of 42dB (typ). In
addition, the VGAs offer very low output-referred noise
performance suitable for interfacing with 12-bit ADCs.
The MAX2038 VGA is optimized for less than ±0.25dB
absolute gain error to ensure minimal channel-to-chan-
nel ultrasound beamforming focus error. The device’s
differential outputs are designed to directly drive ultra-
sound ADCs through an external passive anti-aliasing
filter. A switchable clamp is also provided at each
amplifier’s output to limit the output signals, thereby
preventing ADC overdrive or saturation.
Dynamic performance of the device is optimized to
reduce distortion to support second-harmonic imaging.
The device achieves a second-harmonic distortion
specification of -70dBc at VOUT = 1.5VP-P and fIN =
5MHz and an ultrasound-specific*, two-tone, third-order
intermodulation distortion specification of -52dBc at
VOUT = 1.5VP-P and fIN = 5MHz.
The MAX2038 also integrates an octal quadrature mixer
array and programmable LO phase generators for a
complete CW beamforming solution. The LO phase
selection for each channel can be programmed using a
digital serial interface and a single high-frequency clock
or the LOs for each complex mixer pair can be directly
driven using separate 4 x LO clocks. The serial interface
is designed to allow multiple devices to be easily daisy
chained to minimize program interface wiring. The LO
phase dividers can be programmed to allow 4, 8, or 16
quadrature phases. The input path of each CW mixer
consists of a selectable lowpass filter for optimal CWD
noise performance. The outputs of the mixers are
summed into I and Q differential current outputs. The
mixers and LO generators are designed to have excep-
tionally low noise performance of -155dBc/Hz at 1kHz
offset from a 1.25MHz carrier.
The MAX2038 operates from a +5.0V power supply,
consuming only 120mW/channel in VGA mode and
269mW/channel in normal power CW mode. A low-
power CW mode is also available and consumes only
226mW/channel. The device is available in a lead-free
100-pin TQFP package (14mm x 14mm x 1mm) with an
exposed pad. Electrical performance is guaranteed
over a 0°C to +70°C temperature range.
Applications
Ultrasound Imaging
Sonar
Features
o 8-Channel Configuration
o High Integration for Ultrasound Imaging
Applications
o Pin Compatible with the MAX2037 Ultrasound VGA
VGA Features
o Maximum Gain, Gain Range, and Output-Referred
Noise Optimized for Interfacing with 12-Bit ADCs
Maximum Gain of 29.5dB
Total Gain Range of 42dB
22nV/Hz Ultra-Low Output-Referred Noise at
5MHz
o ±0.25dB Absolute Gain Error
o 120mW Consumption per Channel
o Switchable Output VGA Clamp Eliminating ADC
Overdrive
o Fully Differential VGA Outputs for Direct ADC
Drive
o Variable Gain Range Achieves 42dB Dynamic
Range
o -70dBc HD2 at VOUT = 1.5VP-P and fIN = 5MHz
o Two-Tone Ultrasound-Specific* IMD3 of
-52dBc at VOUT = 1.5VP-P and fIN = 5MHz
CW Doppler Mixer Features
o Low Mixer Noise of -155dBc/Hz at 1kHz Offset
from 1.25MHz Carrier
o Serial-Programmable LO Phase Generator for 4, 8,
16 LO Quadrature Phase Resolution
o Optional Individual Channel 4 x fLO LO Input
Drive Capability
o 269mW Power Consumption per Channel (Normal
Power Mode) and 226mW Power Consumption
per Channel (Low-Power Mode)
o CWD Implementation Is Fully Compliant with All
Patents Related to Ultrasound Imaging
Techniques
Ordering Information
PART
TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
MAX2038CCQ+D
0°C to +70°C 100 TQFP-EP*
MAX2038CCQ+TD
0°C to +70°C 100 TQFP-EP*
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
D = Dry packing.
T = Tape and reel.
*EP = Exposed pad.
*See the Ultrasound-Specific IMD3 Specification in the
Applications Information section.
Pin Configuration appears at end of data sheet.
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642,
or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com.



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Ultrasound VGA Integrated
with CW Octal Mixer
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ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
VCC, VREF to GND .................................................-0.3V to +5.5V
Any Other Pins to GND...............................-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V)
CW Mixer Output Voltage to GND (CW_IOUT+, CW_IOUT-,
CW_QOUT+, CW_QOUT-) ................................................13V
VGA Differential Input Voltage (VGIN_+, VGIN_-)............8.0VP-P
Analog Gain Control Differential Input Voltage
(VG_CTL+, VG_CTL-) ..................................................8.0VP-P
CW Mixer Differential Input Voltage
(CWIN_+, CWIN_-).......................................................8.0VP-P
CW Mixer LVDS LO Differential Input Voltage..................8.0VP-P
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
100-Pin TQFP (derated 45.5mW/°C above +70°C)...3636.4mW
Operating Temperature Range...............................0°C to +70°C
Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C
θJC (Note 1) .....................................................................+2°C/W
θJA (Note 1) ...................................................................+22°C/W
Storage Temperature Range .............................-40°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C
Note 1: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-
layer board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations, refer to www.maxim-ic.com/thermal-tutorial.
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS—VGA MODE
(Typical Application Circuit, Figure 7. VCC = VREF = 4.75V to 5.25V, VCM = (3/5)VREF, TA = 0°C to +70°C, VGND = 0, LOW_PWR = 0,
M4_EN = 0, CW_FILTER = 0 or 1, TMODE = 0, PD = 0, CW_VG = 1, CW_M1 = 0, CW_M2 = 0, no RF signals applied, capacitance to
GND at each of the VGA differential outputs is 60pF, differential capacitance across the VGA outputs is 10pF,
RL = 1kΩ, CW mixer outputs pulled up to +11V through four separate ±0.1% 115Ω resistors, all CW channels programmed off.
Typical values are at VCC = VREF = 5V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
VGA MODE
Supply Voltage Range
VCC External Reference
Total Power-Supply Current
VCC Supply Current
VREF Current
Current Consumption per
Amplifier Channel
SYMBOL
CONDTIONS
VCC
VREF
IVCC
IREF
(Note 3)
Refers to VCC supply
current plus VREF current
PD = 0
PD =1
Refers to VCC supply current
MIN TYP MAX UNITS
4.75 5 5.25
4.75 5 5.25
204 231
27 33
192 216
12 15
24 27
V
V
mA
mA
mA
mA
Differential Analog Control
Voltage Range
Minimum gain
Maximum gain
+2
-2 VP-P
Differential Analog Control
Common-Mode Voltage
VCM
2.85 3 3.15 V
Analog Control Input
Source/Sink Current
4.5 5
mA
LOGIC INPUTS
CMOS Input High Voltage
CMOS Input Low Voltage
VIH
VIL
2.3 V
0.8 V
2 _______________________________________________________________________________________



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Ultrasound VGA Integrated
with CW Octal Mixer
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS—CW MIXER MODE
(Typical Application Circuit, Figure 7. VCC = VREF = 4.75V to 5.25V, TA = 0°C to +70°C, VGND = 0, LOW_PWR = 0,
M4_EN = 0, CW_FILTER = 0 or 1, TMODE = 0, PD = 0, CW_VG = 0, CW_M1 = 0, CW_M2 = 0, no RF signals applied,
capacitance to GND at each of the VGA differential outputs is 60pF, differential capacitance across the VGA outputs is 10pF,
RL = 1kΩ, CW mixer outputs pulled up to +11V through four separate ±0.1% 115Ω resistors. Typical values are at VCC = VREF = 5V,
TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
CW MIXER MODE
Current in Full-Power Mode
5V VCC Supply
SYMBOL
CONDTIONS
MIN TYP MAX UNITS
ICC_FP Refers to VCC supply current (all 8 channels)
245 265
mA
Current in Full-Power Mode
11V VMIX Supply
Current in Full-Power Mode
5V VREF Supply
Power Dissipation in Full-Power
Mode
IMIX_FP Refers to VMIX supply current (all 8 channels)
IREF_FP Refers to VREF supply current (all 8 channels)
PDISS_FP
Total power dissipation (all 8 channels
including both 5V (VCC and VREF) and 11V
mixer pullup supply power dissipation in the
device) (Note 4)
106 120
17 21
mA
mA
2.15 2.41
W
Current in Low-Power Mode
5V VCC Supply
ICC_LP
LOW_PWR = 1; refers to VCC supply current
(all 8 channels)
245 265
mA
Current in Low-Power Mode
11V VMIX Supply
IMIX_LP
LOW_PWR = 1; refers to VMIX supply current
(all 8 channels)
53 60 mA
Current in Low-Power Mode
5V VREF Supply
Power Dissipation in Low-Power
Mode
IREF_LP
LOW_PWR = 1; refers to VREF supply current
(all 8 channels)
PDISS_LP
LOW_PWR = 1; total power dissipation
(all 8 channels including both 5V (VCC and
VREF) and 11V mixer pullup supply power
dissipation in the device) (Note 4)
17 21 mA
1.81 2.06
W
Mixer LVDS LO Input Common-
Mode Voltage
Modes 1 and 2 (Note 5)
1.25
±0.2
V
LVDS LO Differential Input
Voltage
Modes 1 and 2
200 700
mVP-P
LVDS LO Input
Common-Mode Current
Per pin
150 200
µA
LVDS LO Differential
Input Resistance
Modes 1 and 2 (Note 6)
30 kΩ
Mixer IF Common-Mode Output
Current
Common-mode current in each of the
differential mixer outputs (Note 7)
3.25 3.75
mA
DATA Output High Voltage
DOUT voltage when terminated in DIN
(daisy chain) (Note 8)
4.5
V
DATA Output Low Voltage
DOUT voltage when terminated in DIN
(daisy chain) (Note 8)
0.5 V
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 3



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AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS—VGA MODE
(Typical Application Circuit, Figure 7. VCC = VREF = 4.75V to 5.25V, VCM = (3/5)VREF, TA = 0°C to +70°C, VGND = 0, LOW_PWR = 0,
M4_EN = 0, CW_FILTER = 1, TMODE = 0, PD = 0, CW_VG = 1, CW_M1 = 0, CW_M2 = 0, VG_CLAMP_MODE = 1, fRF = fLO/16 =
5MHz, capacitance to GND at each of the VGA differential outputs is 60pF, differential capacitance across the VGA outputs is 10pF,
RL = 1kΩ, CW mixer outputs pulled up to +11V through four separate ±0.1% 115Ω resistors, differential mixer inputs are driven from
a low impedance source. Typical values are at VCC = VREF = 5V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Mode Select Response Time
CW_VG set from logic 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1 2 µs
(Note 9)
VGA MODE
Full-Scale Bandwidth
Differential output
capacitance is 10pF,
VOUT = 1.5VP-P,
capacitance to GND
at each single-ended
18
f-1.3dB 1.3dB bandwidth, output is 60pF,
MHz
gain = 10dB
RL = 1kΩ
Small-Signal Bandwidth
Differential Input Resistance
Input Effective Capacitance
Differential Output Resistance
Maximum Gain
Minimum Gain
Gain Range
Absolute Gain Error
VGA Gain Response Time
f-1.3dB
RIN
CIN
ROUT
No capacitive load
RL = 1kΩ
VOUT = 1.5mVP-P, 3dB bandwidth,
gain = 10dB
fRF = 10MHz, each input to ground
TA = +25°C, full gain range 0% to 100%,
VREF = 5V
40dB gain change to within 1dB final value
29
30
170 200 230
15
100
+29.5
-12.5
42
±0.25 ±1.5
1
MHz
Ω
pF
Ω
dB
dB
dB
dB
µs
Input-Referred Noise
Output-Referred Noise
VG_CTL set for maximum gain,
no input signal
VG_CTL set for
+10dB of gain
No input signal
VOUT = 1.5VP-P, 1kHz
offset
2 nV/Hz
22
nV/Hz
55
Second Harmonic
VG_CLAMP_MODE = 1, VG_CTL set for
+10dB of gain, fRF = 5MHz, VOUT = 1.5VP-P
-70
HD2
VG_CLAMP_MODE = 1, VG_CTL set for
+10dB of gain, fRF = 10MHz, VOUT = 1.5VP-P
-55
-65
dBc
Third-Order Intermodulation
Distortion
IMD3
VG_CLT set for +10dB of gain, fRF1 = 5MHz,
fRF2 = 5.01MHz, VOUT = 1.5VP-P,
VREF = 5V (Note 3)
-40 -52
dBc
Channel-to-Channel Crosstalk
VOUT = 1VP-P differential, fRF = 10MHz,
VG_CTL set for +10dB of gain
-80 dB
Maximum Output Voltage at
ClampON
VG_CLAMP_MODE = 0, VG_CTL set for
+20dB of gain, 350mVP-P differential input
2.4 VP-P
differential
4 _______________________________________________________________________________________



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